Clayton, P.H., Hatcher, J.A., & Bringle, R.G. (Eds). (2013). Research on service learning: Conceptual frameworks and assessment (Vols. 2A & 2B), IUPUI Series on Service Learning Research. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Ash, S.L. & Clayton, P.H. (2009). Learning through Critical Reflection: A Tutorial for Service-Learning Students. Raleigh, NC.
Jameson, J. K., Clayton, P. H., & Ash, S. L. (2013). Conceptualizing, assessing, and investigating academic learning in service learning. In P. H. Clayton, R. G. Bringle, & J. A. Hatcher, (Eds.), Research on service learning: Conceptual frameworks and assessment (Vol. 2A). Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Clayton, P. H., Hess, G., Jaeger, A., Jameson, J., & McGuire, L. (2013). Investigating faculty learning in service learning: Theoretical frameworks and research. In P. H. Clayton, R. G. Bringle, & J. A. Hatcher, (Eds.), Research on service learning: Conceptual frameworks and assessment (Vol. 2A). Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Bringle, R. G., & Clayton, P. H. Conceptual framework for partnerships in service learning. (2013). In P. H. Clayton, R. G. Bringle, & J. A. Hatcher, (Eds.). Research on service learning: Conceptual frameworks and assessment (Vol. 2B). Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Bringle, R. G., Clayton, P. H., & Hatcher, J. A. (2013). Research on service learning: An introduction. In P. H. Clayton, R. G. Bringle, & J. A. Hatcher, (Eds.). Research on service learning: Conceptual frameworks and assessment. (Vols. 2A & 2B). Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Dostilio, L., Brackmann, S., Edwards, K., Harrison, B., Kliewer, B. K., & Clayton, P. H. (2012). Reciprocity: Saying what we mean and meaning what we say. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 19(1).
Jameson, J., Clayton, P. H., & Jaeger, A. (2012). Investigating faculty learning about community engaged scholarship. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 18(1), 40-55.
Jaeger, A., Jameson, J., & Clayton, P. H. (2012). Institutionalization of community engaged scholarship at a land grant, reseach extensive university: Examining the paradox of identity. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 16(1), 149-167.
Janke, E. M., & Clayton, P. H. (2012). Excellence in community engagement and community-engaged scholarship: Advancing the discourse at UNCG (Vol. 1). Greensboro, NC: University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
Felten, P. & Clayton, P. H. Service-learning. (2011). Evidence-based teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2011(128), 75-84.
Bringle, R. G., Studer, M. H., Wilson, J., Clayton, P. H., & Steinberg, K. (2011). Designing programs with a purpose: To promote civic engagement for life. Journal of Academic Ethics, 9, 149-164.
Brooks, E. L., Harris, C. R., & Clayton, P. H. (2011). Deepening applied learning: An enhanced case study approach using critical reflection. Journal of Applied Learning in Higher Education, 2(1), 55 – 76.
Jameson, J. K., Clayton, P. H., & Jaeger, A. J. (2011). Community engaged scholarship as mutually transformative partnerships. In L. Harter, J. Hamel-Lambert, & J. Millesen (Eds.), Participatory partnerships for social action and research (pp. 259-277). Dubuque IA: Kendall Hunt.
Whitney, B. C. and Clayton, P. H. (2011). Research on the role of reflection in international service learning. In R. G. Bringle, J. A. Hatcher, & S. G. Jones, (Eds.). International service learning: Conceptual frameworks and research (pp. 145 - 187). Sterling, VA: Stylus.ABSTRACT: Designing effective reflection is one of the key ingredients in harnessing the capacity of domestic and international service -learning to generate significant learning and service outcomes. Both the process and the products of reflection provide rich grounds for investigating the relationship between the nature of the international service-learning (ISL) experience and the outcomes achieved and for examining the ISL experience in-depth so as to better understand its dynamics. Many practitioners find the reflection component of service-learning challenging to implement, however, and the difficulties may well be enhanced when service-learning is undertaken in an international context. This chapter will discuss the meaning and role of critical reflection in service-learning, explore issues of effective design, and consider the implications of an international context. With this foundation, the chapter provides recommendations for constructing research to study both outcomes and the role of reflection in reaching them.
Hartley, M., Saltmarsh, J., & Clayton, P. H. (2010). Is the civic engagement movement changing higher education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 58(4), 391-406.
Clayton, P. H. and O’Steen, W. L. (2010). Working with faculty: Designing customized developmental strategies. In Jacoby and Mutascio (Eds). Looking in – reaching out: A reflective guide for community service-learning professionals (pp. 95 – 135). Boston, MA: Campus Compact.
Clayton, P. H., Bringle, R. G., Senor, B., Huq, J., & Morrison, M. (2010). Differentiating and assessing relationships in service-learning and civic engagement: Exploitative, transactional, or transformational. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 16(2), 5-22.
ABSTRACT: As a defining aspect of service-learning and civic engagement, relationships can exist among faculty members, students, community organizations, community members, and administrators on campus. This research developed procedures to measure several aspects of these relationships. Investigators collected information from 20 experienced service-learning faculty members about their relationships with representatives of community organizations using the newly-developed Transformational Relationship Evaluation Scale (TRES). Results indicate that transactional and transformational qualities can be differentiated using TRES and are related to other characteristics of relationships (e.g., closeness). Conceptual work underlying this study aims to advance practitioner-scholars’ understanding of partnerships as one type of relationship, offering a refinement on and an expansion of the terminology associated with service-learning and civic engagement.
Ash, S.L. & Clayton, P.H. (2009). Generating, deepening, and documenting learning: The power of critical reflection in applied learning. Journal of Applied Learning in Higher Education,1(1), 25-48.
ABSTRACT: Applied learning pedagogies—including service-learning, internships/practica, study abroad, and undergraduate research—have in common both the potential for significant student learning and the challenges of facilitating and assessing that learning, often in non-traditional ways that involve experiential strategies outside the classroom as well as individualized outcomes. Critical reflection oriented toward well-articulated learning outcomes is key to generating, deepening, and documenting student learning in applied learning. This article will consider the meaning of critical reflection and principles of good practice for designing it effectively and will present a research-grounded, flexible model for integrating critical reflection and assessment.
McGuire, L., Strong, D., Lay, K., Ardemagni, E., Wittberg, P., & Clayton, P. H. (2009). A case study of faculty learning around reflection: A collaborative faculty development project. In B. E. Moely, S. H. Billig, & B. A. Holland (Eds.), Creating our identities in service-learning and community engagement (pp. 75-101). Greenwich, CN: Information Age.
ABSTRACT: This article presents data generated from a faculty development initiative grounded in the DEAL Model of Critical Reflection for service-learning (Ash & Clayton, 2004; Ash, Clayton, & Atkinson, 2005; Ash, Clayton, & Moses, 2008). This faculty learning community involved assessment of student learning resulting from reflection on service experiences and assessment of faculty changes in pedagogy in the implementation of the DEAL Model. Using case study methodology, both written student products and faculty syllabi and assignments were analyzed, and a focus group was convened to explore the benefits and challenges of learning this reflective pedagogy. A model of the connections between student learning and faculty change is presented, and implications are discussed for future research related to the relationship between student and faculty learning.
Bringle, R. G., Clayton, P. H., & Price, M. (2009). Partnerships in service learning and civic engagement. Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement, 1(1), 1-20.
ABSTRACT: Developing campus-community partnerships is a core element of well-designed and effective civic engagement, including service learning and participatory action research. A structural model, SOFAR, is presented that differentiates campus into administrators, faculty, and students, and that differentiates community into organizational staff and residents (or clients, consumers, advocates). Partnerships are presented as being a subset of relationships between persons. The quality of these dyadic relationships is analyzed in terms of the degree to which the interactions possess closeness, equity, and integrity, and the degree to which the outcomes of those interactions are exploitive, transactional, or transformational. Implications are then offered for how this analysis can improve practice and research.
Saltmarsh, J., Hartley, M., & Clayton, P. H. (2009). Democratic Engagement White Paper. Boston, MA: New England Resource Center for Higher Education.
Ash, S. L., Jameson, J. K., & Clayton, P. H. (2009). Assessing critical thinking and higher order reasoning in service-learning enhanced courses and course sequences. In T. Banta, B. Jones, & K. Black (Eds.), Planning, implementing, and sustaining assessment: Principles and profiles of good practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Plater, W., Jones, S., Bringle, R. G., Clayton, P. H. (2009). Educating globally competent citizens through international service learning. In R. Lewin (Ed.), The handbook of practice and research in study abroad: Higher education and the quest for global citizenship. Routledge & AAC&U.
ABSTRACT: International service learning is a form of study abroad that combines academic study abroad with community service and structured reflection as a means of educating citizens that are globally knowledgeable and inter-culturally competent. In this chapter, we discuss the trends emerging in higher education and the role international service learning can play in responding to these trends. We also define international service learning and address issues of course and program design as they relate to student outcomes. Finally, we discuss international service learning as an emerging field for assessment, research, and scholarship.
Jameson, J. K., Clayton, P. H., & Bringle, R. G. (2008). Investigating student learning within and across linked service-learning courses. In M. Bowden, S. Billig, & B. Holland (Eds.), Scholarship for sustaining service-learning and civic engagement (pp. 3-27). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
ABSTRACT :This chapter summarizes the design, preliminary results, and primary challenges of a multi-year investigation of student learning within and across a sequence of service-learning enhanced courses. The investigators are assessing written student reflection products that are guided by specific prompts designed to facilitate higher order reasoning in the context of specific learning objectives, which are shared by multiple courses in a nonprofit studies minor. The results of the research, based on independent assessment of student products and in line with the intent of the minor’s developmental design, demonstrate that student learning in later courses is more advanced in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy than student learning in earlier courses. Although limited in scope, this study represents the first evidence we are aware of in the research literature demonstrating that instructional methods intentionally designed to build upon earlier service-learning enhanced courses do lead to higher order thinking and progressively more sophisticated understanding of course material. This ongoing research project demonstrates an intentional, analytical process of curriculum design and evaluation that should lead to the sustainability of the minor. The chapter examines the challenges that underlie the limitations of the study and suggests practical implications for continued SoTL work and for the institutionalization of other interdisciplinary programs.
Whitney, B., McClure, J., Respet, A., & Clayton, P. (2007). Service-learning as a shared developmental journey: Tapping the potential of the pedagogy. In L. McIlrath & I. MacLabhrainn (Eds.), Higher education and civic engagement: International perspectives (pp. 185-196). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
ABSTRACT: Service-learning can be a powerful vehicle for advancing civic engagement in higher education, in large part because of its intensely reflective, critical nature. This chapter is an embodiment of this essential characteristic of the pedagogy, and it is the product of in-depth individual and collaborative reflection, not on service per se but rather on the nature and evolution of the particular service-learning experiences of students at an institution of higher education in the USA. The four authors, who include two alumi, an undergraduate, and an academic staff member, have all been involved in service-learning over several years with gradually increasing levels of contribution, investment, responsibility and ownership. Reflection on this involvement has enhanced our understanding of how and why we have found service -earning to have extraordinarily powerful outcomes. Together, we have undertaken, and are still engaged in, a shared developmental journey that has transformed us, our relationships, our fellow students and academic staff/faculty, and our service-learning programme itself. In this chapter we examine the student dimensions of this mutually-transformative journey, drawing closely on our personal experiences, in an attempt to give a student voice to the developmental potential of service-learning.
Bringle, R. G., Hatcher, J. A., & Clayton, P. H. (2007). The scholarship of civic engagement: Defining, documenting and evaluating faculty work. In D. Robertson & L. Nilson (Eds.), To improve the academy (pp. 257-279). Bolton, MA: Anker.
ABSTRACT: Civic engagement, which is presented as teaching, research, and service in and with the community, presents new challenges for evaluating faculty work as part of the reappointment, promotion, and tenure process. The nature of service learning, professional service, and participatory action research are examined as faculty work that can be scholarly (i.e., well-informed) and the basis of scholarship (i.e., contributing to a knowledge base). As such, examples of evidence for documenting the work and issues associated with evaluating dossiers are presented.
Clayton, P. H., & McClure, J. (2006). Advancing engagement at NC State: Reflection leader training and support. In E. Zlotkowski, N. Longo, & J. Williams (Eds.), Students as colleagues: Expanding the circle of service-learning leadership (pp. 77-88). Providence, RI: Campus Compact.
ABSTRACT: Intentionally linking the assessment of the student learning outcomes of service-learning with its reflective component allows each to inform and reinforce the other. This paper traces the evolution of a strategy that uses reflection products as data sources to assess and improve both individual student learning and program-wide approaches to reflection. Two tools were developed in response to an earlier, unsatisfactory, assessment of students’ work. Students and instructors then used these tools to guide the process of reflective writing in two courses. Associated rubrics evaluated the quality of thinking demonstrated in the written products. Results suggest that these tools can improve students’ higher order reasoning abilities and critical thinking skills relative to academic enhancement, civic engagement, and personal growth, and as a result, can improve the overall quality of their thinking and learning. However, this assessment has also surfaced the need for further improvement, particularly with respect to academic learning outcomes.
Clayton, P., Ash, S., Bullard, L., Bullock, B., Moses, M., Moore, A., O’Steen, W., Stallings, S., & Usry, R. (2005). Adapting a core service-learning model for wide-ranging implementation: An institutional case study. Creative College Teaching, 2(1), 10-26.
ABSTRACT: Service-learning is a highly adaptable pedagogy, well-suited to fulfill a variety of objectives with a range of student populations across the spectrum of disciplines. This article shares the experience of a large institution’s Service-Learning Program that has developed a core model for service-learning and that supports instructors across campus in customizing it for their own unique implementation. The core model consists of a baseline definition, a standard approach to curricular design, and a simple but well-structured reflection process. Discussion of this core model is followed by the presentation of seven examples of courses that have been reworked accordingly with a service-learning component, from the small-scale module to the semester-long project to the entirely project-based course. The experiences of students and faculty across this spectrum of approaches reveal some of the benefits and the challenges associated with adaptation of a core model in implementing service-learning across the disciplines.
Clayton, P. H., & Ash, S. L. (2005). Reflection as a key component in faculty development. On the Horizon, 13(3), 161-169.
ABSTRACT: Reflection is key to learning from experience, including the experience of teaching. We suggest that critical reflection is as important in faculty development as it is in student learning and offer our experience with a service-learning program as a case study of the benefits and challenges of structuring faculty development around reflection. Reflection on our teaching both deepens our understanding of our roles as educators and allows us to model those abilities and perspectives we want our students to develop. Further, collaborating with our students in the reflective process promotes a strong sense of learning community, positioning students and faculty alike as engaged in collaborative inquiry.
ABSTRACT: Service-learning is a unique pedagogy, and its very differences from traditional teaching and learning strategies make it both appealing and challenging to implement. Students and faculty alike are the products of traditional learning environments and often find service-learning unfamiliar and, as a consequence, experience dissonance, discomfort, and uncertainty. Confronting the difficulties students and faculty at our institution have faced in adjusting to these differences has helped us to realize the importance of making “shifts in perspective” in how we understand and enact teaching and learning and service. This article shares our emerging understanding of these “shifts” and of how we can support students and faculty in undertaking them effectively. The central conclusion is that reflecting on the differences between service-learning and more traditional pedagogies and on ways to make the associated shifts in perspective and practice can help practitioners to implement service-learning successfully and to more fully tap its power to nurture the capacity for self-directed learning.
Ash, S. & Clayton, P. (2004). The articulated learning: An approach to guided reflection and assessment. Innovative Higher Education, 29(2), 137-154.
ABSTRACT: The value of reflection on experience to enhance learning has been advanced for decades; however, it remains difficult to apply in practice. This paper describes a reflection model that pushes students beyond superficial interpretations of complex issues and facilitates academic mastery, personal growth, civic engagement, critical thinking, and the meaningful demonstration of learning. Although developed in a service-learning program, its general features can support reflection on a range of experiences. It is accessible to both students and instructors, regardless of discipline; and it generates written products that can be used for formative and summative assessment of student learning.
Ash, S. L., & Clayton, P. H. (2004). Service-learning: Integrating inquiry and engagement. In V. Lee (Ed.), Teaching and learning through inquiry: A guidebook for institutions and instructors (pp. 229-239). Sterling, VA: Stylus.